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Some social workers have criticized traditional research approaches, suggesting that they are not consistent with the profession's mission to serve vulnerable and disadvantaged populations e. The promise of participatory research.

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Journal of Progressive Human Services , 5: 25 — In Community-based participatory research for health , 2nd , Edited by: Minkler, M. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Pages Published online: 29 Aug Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. Login options Log in.

Username Password Forgot password? This suggests that over time, people may become more familiar with the mainstream culture. This process is known as acculturation, or a change in one's culture resulting from contact between cultures. Some people, however, become assimilated, or take on most of the beliefs and behaviors of the mainstream culture. Still others experience a disconnect or incongruence between cultures.

A client's relative capacity to function in two cultures falls along a continuum, from most ethnically traditional to taking on many aspects of the mainstream culture Pedersen Bicultural competence is a person's ability to alternate between and integrate cultural forms. The social worker's assessment from the dual perspective involves an evaluation of the incongruence "of these disparate systems and determines where the major stress lies" Norton , 7.

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If desired, intervention strategies can then be mutually agreed on. Social workers who embrace an empowerment philosophy of practice seek ways to tap into clients' strengths and natural healing processes, moving them from the margins to the center of society Simon This entails learning which social networks contribute to client well-being. For example, research has documented that religion and religious institutions, including the provision of social integration and support, have had an empowering impact on African American individuals and communities Taylor, Chatters, and Levin Taylor, Chatters, and Levin research indicated that religion could serve as a protective or preventive factor against the recurrence of mental illness and as a moderating factor to ease the influence of life stress.

The following assessment questions summarize the diversity issues discussed throughout the chapter and should be adjusted and applied differentially depending on the client system size and culture:. Intervention with individuals, groups, organizations, and communities varies depending on the client system size and culture and the client assessment.


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Most interventions fall in the realm of advancing social, economic, and environmental justice CSWE Intervention approaches may be thought of as a strategic use of power Cummins, Byers, and Pedrick Examples can include eliminating health disparities and raising the minimum wage.

Consequently, questions to guide interventions primarily come under the umbrella of policy practice Cummins Byers, and Pedrick They include the following:. The NASW Standards for Cultural Competence in Social Work Practice have been revised and now encompass cultural humility in which diversity practice is seen as never realized, achieved, or completed, but rather a lifelong process of learning and introspection. Finally, as you continue through the Handbook, this chapter should help you critique each theory to see how difference is addressed.

Sets of precepts from which one lives one's daily life; those that govern one's thoughts, words, and action. The ability to provide services, conduct assessments, and implement interventions that are reflective of clients' cultural values and norms, congruent with their natural help-seeking behaviors, and inclusive of existing indigenous solutions.

A process of consciously and systematically understanding the values, attitudes, and behaviors of both the minority and mainstream cultures. A process whereby an individual gains power and increased interpersonal influence, often achieved by building support systems and reducing societal discrimination.

Members of an ethnic group think of themselves as being a people or as having a common culture, history, and origin.

A collective of interdependent ethnic groups sharing unique historical ties and bound together by a single political system. A group of people who differ from the larger group of which it is a part. A form of prejudice that espouses that one group of people is superior to another and is therefore denied access to resources. The union of elements of body, emotions, and thoughts that constitute the individuality and identity of a person. Unfairness or injustice in a society in which people do not realize their potential equally and do not have the same access to opportunities.

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A process of consciously and systematically understanding the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the society necessary for participating within the society. Introduction: Theory-Inform Risk and Resilience Theory Human Behavior and the Soci Developmental Theories. We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site.

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Abstract This chapter describes the use of human behavior and the social environment theory to support social workers in engaging diversity and difference in practice. Well-being is limited or enhanced by the nature of political, economic, educational, and legal systems. Professional Purpose and Weil-Being Cultural diversity in social work practice has gradually come to embrace the multiple dimensions of human identity, biculturalism, and culturally defined social behaviors.

The primary shift to a more inclusive social work practice came about because the civil rights and women's liberation movements, with the accompanied acceleration in social change, required that the social work profession reassess its direction and priorities. Greene and Kropf , 33 Students, faculty, and CSWE promoted the idea that groups less visible in the curriculum be given more attention Tully Ethics and values Social workers shall function in accordance with the values, ethics, and standards of the profession, recognizing how personal and professional values may conflict with or accommodate the needs of diverse clients.

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Standard 2. Self-awareness Social workers shall seek to develop an understanding of their own personal and cultural values and beliefs as one way of appreciating the importance of multicultural identities in the lives of people. Standard 3. Cross-cultural knowledge Social workers shall have and continue to develop specialized knowledge and understanding about the history, traditions, values, family systems, and artistic expressions of major client groups they serve.

Standard 4.

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Cross-cultural skills Social workers shall use appropriate methodological approaches, skills, and techniques that reflect the workers' understanding of the role of culture in the helping process. Standard 5. Service delivery Social workers shall be knowledgeable about and skillful in the use of services available in the community and broader society and be able to make appropriate referrals for their diverse clients.

Standard 6.

Empowerment and advocacy Social workers shall be aware of the effect of social policies and programs on diverse client populations, advocating for and with clients whenever appropriate. Standard 7. Diverse workforce Social workers shall support and advocate for recruitment, admissions and hiring, and retention efforts in social work programs and agencies that ensure diversity within the profession. Standard 8.

Clinical Social Work Practice An Integrative Approach

Professional education Social workers shall advocate for and participate in educational and training programs that help advance cultural competence within the profession. Standard 9. Language diversity Social workers shall seek to provide or advocate for the provision of information, referrals, and services in the language appropriate to the client, which may include use of interpreters.

Standard Cross-cultural leadership Social workers shall be able to communicate information about diverse client groups to other professionals. Universality is realized at the intersection of our multiple identities. Diversity Theory: Applying Terms and Macroassumptions in Social Work Practice The human behavior and the social environment theory base has been criticized for its Eurocentric perspective.

Self-awareness and Self-reflection Diversity practice requires an appreciation for attitudinal differences between clients and social workers regarding autonomy or self-determination. Culture Cross-cultural social work practice is based on an understanding of client culture. Ethnosystems Just as the United States can be pictured as being made up of social systems of various sizes, it may also be thought of as comprising ethnosystems of varying cultural makeup.

Assessment content addressed should encompass differences in ethnic group history, language, communication, and so forth. Power Defined Ethnosystems may differ not only in historical, cultural, and organizational patterns and language and communication but in the degree of power over material resources and in political decisions Pinderhughes Ecological theory Power is related to the reciprocal process of goodness of fit between the person and the environment.

Feminist theory Power is unlimited and can be widely distributed through empowerment strategies. Power Levels According to Foucault , "Power is everywhere. Social workers' change strategies can be intended to increase client power. Engage With Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities Macrolevel Power Factors Before they engage with health and social services, far too many people will have had to overcome structural barriers involving power and privilege. Change strategies selected should address structural barriers to service that often are shaped by policy decisions.